Latvian NGO DIA+LOGs in partnership with EHRN has developed an overview of drug policy in Latvia. Drug use, possession and storage of small amounts (up to 0,001 g of heroin, 1 g of marijuana) are considered administrative misdemeanors and may be punished by a warning or a fine up to EUR 280. If there is recidivism within one year criminal sanctions might be imposed (up to 3 month of incarceration). Possession of large amounts (starting from 1 g of heroin) is considered a criminal offence and might be punished by 3 to 10 years in prison. In 2014 the proportion of drug related crimes among all registered criminal offences had increased by more than 2 percent from 3.44% in 2013 to 5.76% in 2014. Out of the total 2 995 registered drug related criminal cases in 2014, 47% were related to use and possession in small amounts, 26% - possession and storage without intention to sell. There are some alternatives to incarceration, albeit “there is no infrastructure and practice in implementing it”. Inmates have access to the free-of-charge methadone programs, but only if they were receiving it before prison. If the person is on buprenorphine he should pay for it himself. There are currently 19 HIV prevention points (HPP) operating In Latvia. Most of the HPP work as low-threshold points and social support centers, six provide outreach work, and only two provide OST with methadone. The coverage of needle and syringe programs in Latvia is far from enough to have an impact on HIV and hepatitis B and C epidemics, too few syringes are distributed, and there also are missing components in the distributed injection kit and lack of accessible locations. On top of this, in the European Drug Report 2015, Latvia was described as a country with high risk of HIV outbreak among people who inject drugs.
The TRAT has been created to help assessors to take available information and data and to process it in a standardized manner to analyze a country’s readiness for, and risks of, transition from donor funding to sustainable domestic financing. This process also helps assessors to identify key barriers that must be addressed before sustainable transition is possible. The TRAT may be applied in advance of the development of a country Transition Plan to help to structure its content as well as at the stages of implementation of the Transition Plan, and may be re-administered periodically to help analyze the ongoing process of transition, as well as to capture both its positive and negative consequences. This version of the tool focuses specifically on assessing the sustainability of harm reduction services through and beyond the transition period.
The “Seeking Alternatives to Repressive Drug Policies” meeting was the first in a series of regional events to discuss alternatives to arrest, incarceration and other coercive sanctions used against drug-using offenders and/or against individuals who have committed nonviolent drug-related offenses.
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The Report contains information on: The Regional Program Performance Review Results Costed Extension Application Development Main regional and national events conducted during the period from the 1st of April till 30th of June 2016. See online
Montenegro is one of the countries of the South Eastern Europe region that has significantly benefited from support of the Global Fund from 2006 to 2015. Together with UNDP as the principal recipient (PR), Global Fund provided direct support for the implementation of two national strategies on HIV/AIDS (2005-2009 and 2010-2014) and a national Tuberculosis (TB) strategy (2007-2011). This support resulted in maintaining the low prevalence of HIV in the country and the remarkably low prevalence of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). Nevertheless, the country reports a high proportion of patients diagnosed at a late stage of infection, potentially indicating a relatively large number of people - including PWID - unaware of their HIV infection as well as high prevalence of viral hepatitis C (HCV) among PWID.
This case study analyzes the readiness and risks of the Bosnia and Herzegovina transition from donor to domestic funding, identifying the challenges and recommendations.
Becoming a member of the European Union in 2007, Romania has seen its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rise 2.8% in 2014 and 3.7% in 2015, one of the highest in the EU with the World Bank categorising the country as ‘upper middle income’ but with the Government only putting 13% of its resources towards the health sector in 2014. Although Gross National Income (GNI) per capita in 2014 was $9,520, one-quarter of the population were reported to be living below the national poverty line.
The Republic of Slovenia (Slovenia) is a European Union Member State located in the southern part of Central Europe. In 2015 the population of Slovenia was 2,068,000 people.According to the latest available estimates, there were 6,100 PWID in Slovenia in 2011. HIV prevalence among PWID is 1.4%? hepatitis C is 32.1% and hepatitis B is 5.6%. Drug use was decriminalized in Slovenia in 2000. Purchasing drugs for private use is not considered a criminal offence. The legal environment for implementing harm reduction programs in Slovenia is highly favorable, because drug use is not criminalized. These programs operate nationwide, providing sterile injecting equipment, information and counseling at nine fixed sites and 178 different outreach locations across the country. The major recent development in NSPs is the piloting of a drug consumption room program in Ljubljana in 2015. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is currently being provided at 19 sites. There are different treatment options to address different needs of OST clients and their health status. The overall OST coverage in 2013 was 65% of opioid users, which is higher than the minimum World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation (40%). The main funder of the Slovenian HIV response and harm reduction programs is the country’s government. The high levels of service coverage and accessibility for PWID imply that the financial support from the government is sufficient to ensure the continuity and sustainability of harm reduction programs.
The Republic of Serbia (Serbia) is a non-European Union State in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula in Central Southeastern Europe. The estimated number of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Serbia is 20,000. There are no PWID community-driven initiative groups or PWID organizations in Serbia. Drug use in Serbia is criminalized. According to the Criminal Code, a person who possesses a small amount of drugs for personal use can be sentenced for up to three years of imprisonment. The end of Global Fund support and the unsolved service sustainability issue led to a significant deterioration of harm reduction programs in Serbia. There was no transition plan for the Global Fund’s withdrawal and no institutional framework for coordinating the transition to domestic financing for HIV and AIDS in Serbia. Currently there are no alternative mechanisms to ensure sustainable funding for NGOs harm reduction programs in Serbia. Local harm reduction groups have recently come together under the Serbian Coalition of Harm Reduction Organizations to coordinate their fundraising efforts.